News", "Royal Navy sends its mightiest ship to take on the Iranian show of force in the Gulf", "U.S. Policy Focus, 2008. According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. He stated that Saudi Arabia was considering building new pipelines to Oman and Yemen, and that Iraq might revive the disused Iraq–Syria pipeline to ship crude to the Mediterranean. "It was shore-to-shore", said one U.S. official describing the launch, who like the others requested anonymity to discuss sensitive information. An oil tanker is on fire in the sea of Oman, Thursday, June 13, 2019. This followed more ambiguous threats from Iran's oil minister and other government officials that an attack on Iran would result in turmoil in the world's oil supply. Most notably, this includes the United States Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain, and the Al Udeid Air Base, housing troops from the United States Air Force[68][69], In June 2012, Saudi Arabia reopened the Iraq Pipeline through Saudi Arabia (IPSA), which was confiscated from Iraq in 2001 and travels from Iraq across Saudi Arabia to a Red Sea port. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. U.S. President Donald Trump said he was prepared to hit three Iranian targets as a reprisal, but retracted … The court ruling allegedly ordered a fine of $3.6 million. Oct 6, 2017 - USS Thorn (DD-988) Spruance-class destroyer named for Lieutenant Jonathan Thorn, (1779-1811). "Iran will not repeat its warning...the enemy's carrier has been moved to the Gulf of Oman because of our drill. The UAE is also increasing Fujairah's storage and off-loading capacities. Le détroit d'Ormuz est stratégique dans le commerce maritime du pétrole. During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary (old) law. Cela représente environ 21 % de la consommation mondiale de pétrole et un tiers du brut transitant par voie maritime dans le monde. [53], Millennium Challenge 2002 was a major war game exercise conducted by the United States armed forces in 2002. When the ship's master declined, one of the Iranian craft fired shots across the bridge of Maersk Tigris. Le président mauritanien, Ould Abdelaziz s’est attaqué au pouvoir en place du Qatar, en déclarant que ce pays a détruit les peuples et les pays arabes, en les infestant de terroristes et de terrorisme. Two oil tankers near the strategic Strait of Hormuz were reportedly attacked on Thursday, an assault that left one ablaze and adrift as sailors were evacuated from both vessels and the U.S. Navy rushed to assist amid heightened tensions between Washington and Tehran. The Iranian Navy Commander, Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari, stated that the strait would not be closed during the exercise; Iranian forces could easily accomplish that but such a decision must be made at a political level. The coastal state is limited in its powers to prevent passage: 1) if threat or actual use of force against its sovereignty, its territorial integrity, or its political independence; or 2) the vessel in any other way violates the principles of international law such as embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.[61]. [62] Economically, Iran would face consequences in terms of their own dependency on oil revenues and commerce through the Strait, such as medical products and food. If Iran is to block the maritime traffic through the Strait, the violation of international norms and damage to the global economy would likely end up in international support to the U.S. acting against Iran. [citation needed] Pressure on prices reflect a combination of uncertainty driven further by China's recent response – reducing oil January 2012 purchases from Iran by 50% compared to those made in 2011. Le détroit d’Ormuz, zone sous hautes tensions. If Iran were to follow through on its threats to completely or partially close of the Strait, one of the world’s most strategically important maritime choke points, the most effective way would be through the use of its anti-access/area-denial capabilities. These small attack crafts can be armed with machine guns, torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. Iranian Army chief Ataollah Salehi said the United States had moved an aircraft carrier out of the Persian Gulf because of Iran's naval exercises, and Iran would take action if the ship returned. On 18 April 1988, the U.S. Navy waged a one-day battle against Iranian forces in and around the strait. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Respectivement capitale économique et politique notoires des Emirats, ce … [19], On 20 March 2009, United States Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Hartford collided with the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS New Orleans in the strait. [70], In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. Il a ajouté que le Qatar est le principal pourvoyeur de terroristes du le monde arabe. Again, this had implication playing out in the Strait of Hormuz, as Iranian threats of Strait closure was put forward in April 2019. Le détroit d'Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l'Iran a abattu un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des … Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. Au sommaire cette semaine, l'escalade militaire dans le détroit d'Ormuz. Sputnik France 33,279 views. [57][58], Captain John Kirby, a Pentagon spokesman, was quoted in a December 2011 Reuters article: "Efforts to increase tension in that part of the world are unhelpful and counter-productive. "[25], While earlier statements from Iran had little effect on global oil markets, coupled with the new sanctions, these comments from Iran are driving crude futures higher, up over 4%. Position stratégique sur le Detroit d’Ormuz, hôte depuis 2009 d’une importante base militaire française à Abou Dhabi, participation militaire en 2011 au conflit en Lybie, ‘guerre’ interne depuis 2013/14 contre les Frères Musulmans, tension perpétuelle avec l’Iran et… Dubaï, Abou-Dhabi, des économies florissantes, un développement fulgurant. Insight Turkey, 2019, p. 183-214. Examples of these are as follows: • Coastal air defences, long-range artillery and anti-ship missiles. Une partrouille maritime iranienne dans le détroit d'Ormuz, le 30 avril 2019. It is striking to note that one of the tankers targeted was Japanese, and precisely took place as the Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Abe, was visiting Tehran. In May 1993, Iran enacted a comprehensive law on maritime areas, several provisions of which conflict with UNCLOS provisions, including a requirement that warships, submarines, and nuclear-powered ships obtain permission before exercising innocent passage through Iran's territorial waters.The United States does not recognize any of the claims by Oman and Iran and has contested each of them. Kahl, Colin H. "Not Time to Attack Iran: Why War Should Be a Last Resort". Tensions between the United States and Iran have been at their height since an American surveillance drone was shot down last week by Iranian forces. Détroit d’Ormuz : « Le monde entier a peur des sanctions américaines et de Trump » - Duration: 36:50. États-Unis/Iran : nouvelles tensions dans le détroit d'Ormuz Depuis jeudi 13 juin et l'attaque de deux pétroliers, les tensions sont vives dans le golfe d'Oman. Il est placé sous la double souveraineté d'Oman et de l'Iran mais la libre circulation y est, en théorie, garantie par une convention des Nations unies. [24], The U.S. Navy spokesman Commander Bill Speaks quickly responded that deployment of U.S. military assets would continue as has been the custom stating: "The U.S. Navy operates under international maritime conventions to maintain a constant state of high vigilance in order to ensure the continued, safe flow of maritime traffic in waterways critical to global commerce. | Ainsi, le pétrole léger produit par les Etats-Unis n’est pas un substitut aux bruts lourds du Moyen-Orient. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and … American Foreign Policy Interests, 2010. On 29 June 2008, the commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, Mohammad Ali Jafari, said that if either Israel or the United States attacked Iran, it would seal off the Strait of Hormuz to wreak havoc in the oil markets. Nevertheless, Iran continued to discuss the impact of shutting the Strait on world oil markets, saying that any disruption of supply would cause a shock to markets that "no country" could manage. Authorities were considering whether to reply, although the contents of the letter were not divulged. The opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. The battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U.S., was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz ) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. [26], On 7 January 2012, the British government announced that it would be sending the Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring to the Persian Gulf. In the last week of July 2008, in the Operation Brimstone,[18] dozens of U.S. and foreign naval ships came to undergo joint exercises for possible military activity in the shallow waters off the coast of Iran. "Iran's Military Capability: The Structure and Strength of Forces". A senior member of Iran's parliament said that the Islamic Republic would close the entry point to the Persian Gulf if new sanctions block its oil exports. Il est clair que les États Unis ont des preuves de ce qu'ils affirment. Iran subsequently denied the accusations, calling the incident a false-flag attack. On 28 April 2015, IRGCN patrol boats contacted the Marshall Islands-flagged container ship Maersk Tigris, which was westbound through the strait, and directed the ship to proceed further into Iranian territorial waters, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Defense Department. The assumptions and results were controversial. [10] In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. [citation needed], A 2007 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies also stated that 17 million barrels passed out of the Persian Gulf daily, but that oil flows through the Strait accounted for roughly 40% of all world-traded oil. Escalada de tensión en el estrecho de Ormuz: Irán intercepta una aeronave 'espía' y EEUU le acusa de derribar uno de sus drones "[70], Strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, 2019 U.S.–Iran tensions and attacks on oil tankers, Iran's Anti-Access/Area-Denial capabilities. [21] A U.S. Fifth Fleet spokeswoman said in response that the Fleet was "always ready to counter malevolent actions", whilst Admiral Habibollah Sayyari of the Iranian navy claimed that cutting off oil shipments would be "easy". [7] In 2018 alone, 21 million barrels a day were passing through the strait - this means $1.17 billion worth of oil a day, at September 2019 prices. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. Malgré les tensions économiques, malgré les pressions écologiques, nous avons encore trente bonnes années devant nous. L’hypothèse d’une guerre États-Unis-Iran est même envisagée. [45], In 2020, France deployed about 600 troops at sea and in the air under the CTF474 to protect maritime trade, regional business, and to ease local tensions. [10], Oman has a radar site Link Quality Indicator (LQI) to monitor the TSS in the Strait of Hormuz. [13] Iran limited the retaliatory attacks to Iraqi shipping, leaving the strait open.[13]. The United States Navy and United States Air Force in the Gulf region is far stronger than that of Iran, and while an Iranian attempt to close of the Strait can cause damage, the U.S. is able to defeat it. [5][dubious – discuss] In the local dialects of Hurmoz and Minab this strait is still called Hurmogh and has the aforementioned meaning. [72] The Habshan – Fujairah route secures the UAE's energy security and has the advantage of being a ground oil pipeline transportation which is considered the cheapest form of oil transportation and also reduces insurance costs as oil tankers would no longer enter the Persian Gulf. It followed President Trump’s open endorsement, during his recent visit to the archipelago, of Mr Abe's willingness … Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. Ravivées en mai 2018 par le retrait américain de l’accord international sur le nucléaire et le rétablissement de lourdes sanctions, les tensions se sont récemment intensifiées avec des actes de sabotage et des attaques contre des pétroliers dans la région du Golfe en mai et en juin, imputées par Washington à Téhéran – qui a cependant démenti. Luft stated that reducing Hormuz traffic "presents the West with a new opportunity to augment its current Iran containment strategy. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. The strait is about 90 nautical miles (167 km) long, with a width varying from about 52 nautical miles (96 km) to 21 nautical miles (39 km). The captain complied and proceeded into Iranian waters near Larak Island. On 14 January 2008, U.S. Navy officials appeared to contradict the Pentagon version of the 16 January event, in which the Pentagon had reported that U.S. vessels had almost fired on approaching Iranian boats. [63], • A significant fleet of small boats and manpower available, which can be used to manoeuvre around larger vessels in swarming (military) tactics. Le détroit d’Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l’Iran a abattu jeudi 20 juin un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des décennies. In the same article, Suzanne Maloney, an Iran expert at the Brookings Institution, said, "The expectation is that the U.S. military could address any Iranian threat relatively quickly. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. [33] These ships operated in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea off the coast of Iran. "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In brief". [16], On 8 July 2008, Ali Shirazi, a mid-level clerical aide to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was quoted by the student news agency ISNA as telling the Revolutionary Guards, "The Zionist regime is pressuring White House officials to attack Iran. Les États-Unis accusent l'Iran. Nous le savons, la fin des années pétrole débouchera forcément sur une guerre. [40], On 22 April 2019, the U.S. ended the oil waivers, which allowed some of Iran’s customers to import Iranian oil, without risking financial penalties as part of the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. International Security, 2008. [32], By 23 January, a flotilla had been established by countries opposing Iran's threats to close the Hormuz Strait. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea. Une possibilité serait de commencer par le détroit d’Ormuz et d’entamer un dialogue avec tous les acteurs de cette région. "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In Brief". "[60], In May 2012, a learned article concluded that both the UNCLOS and the 1958 Convention on the High Seas would be violated if Iran followed through on its threat to block passage through the Straits of vessels such as oil tankers, and that the act of passage bears no relation in law to the imposition of economic sanctions. Point de passage stratégique : lieu de circulation important pour les différents acteurs en jeu. Warns Top Iran Leader Not to Shut Strait of Hormuz", "Oil Climbs From Four-Week Low as Iran Warns of Hormuz Supply Disruption", "Iran: Flotilla of Warships Sent Through Strait of Hormuz Heightens Tensions", "Iran: EU oil sanctions 'unfair' and 'doomed to fail, "Iran threatens to close Strait of Hormuz over EU oil sanctions", "Iran seizes commercial ship, U.S. forces respond", "Maersk insists on release of ship and crew seized by Iran", "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions", "Iran's Guards say Strait of Hormuz is for all or", "Iran test-fires ballistic missile for first time in 2018, officials say", https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/04/iran-business-usual-strait-hormuz-blacklisting-190428133314213.htmlAljazeera.%7CAljazeera, https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2019/04/iran-close-strait-hormuz-190429190841982.html%7CAljazeera, "Tankers Are Attacked in Mideast, and U.S. Says Video Shows Iran Was Involved", "Latvian citizen on board of British tanker seized by Iran", "Iran says its seizure of British ship a 'reciprocal' move", "French ATL2 joins Operation AGENOR in the Strait of Hormuz", https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/05/iran-retaliate-us-oil-threats-eu-visit-hassan-rouhani-trump%7C, "How Iran could beat up on America's superior military", Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz, Costs and Difficulties of Blocking the Strait of Hormuz, "Iranian navy begins exercise in waters near strategic oil route", "Shutting Off Gulf 'Very Easy': Iran Navy Chief", "Hormuz Blockade: Not as Easy as Iran May Think", "Iran Has Ability to Block Strait of Hormuz, U.S. General Dempsey Tells CBS", "Transit Passage Rights in the Strait of Hormuz and Iran's Threats to Block the Passage of Oil Tankers", "New UAE pipeline bypasses Strait of Hormuz", "World's largest crude oil storage facility to be built in UAE", "The UAE's longer term approach on energy security", "How Great a Concern? La présence de nombreuses îles – dont celle d’Ormuz qui a donné son nom au détroit – et la faible profondeur des eaux territoriales iraniennes, les obligent à emprunter, à l’entrée comme à la sortie, deux chenaux très étroits – de deux milles nautiques (3,7 km) chaque, séparés par une zone tampon de même largeur –, mais suffisants pour permettre le passage … Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. Il est l’une des zones stratégiques les plus fébriles de la planète. On August … [41], On the morning of 13 June 2019, the oil tankers Front Altair and Kokuka Courageous were both rocked by explosions shortly before dawn, the crew of the latter reported seeing a flying object strike the ship; the crew were rescued by the destroyer USS Bainbridge while the crew of the Front Altair were rescued by Iranian ships. Un quart du commerce mondial de gaz naturel liquéfié passe également par Ormuz. A series of naval stand-offs between Iranian speedboats and U.S. warships in the Strait of Hormuz occurred in December 2007 and January 2008. "Costs and Difficulties of Blocking the Strait of Hormuz". The declarations further asserted that prior permission was required before foreign warships could pass through Omani territorial waters. Au lendemain de la destruction d'un drone par un navire américain au dessus du détroit d'Ormuz, Téhéran a «confisqué» un pétrolier britannique dans cette zone sous haute tension. Nous respectons votre choix. This was said to represent 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments and 20% of oil traded worldwide. Afin de nous permettre de conserver notre pérennité économique, Des visiteurs dans le détroit d’Ormuz, au large de Bandar Abbas (Iran), le 29 avril 2019. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. le deuxième verrou stratégique du commerce maritime c'est le détroit d'ormuz large d'une trentaine de kilomètres ce des trois voies transiter trente pourcent du pétrole mondial il est sous administration conjointe du sultanat d'oman et de l'iran en cas de crise majeure avec les puissances occidentales l'iran pourrait facilement prendre le contrôle du détroit et déstabiliser ainsi le commerce mondial depuis le … As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. [22] Despite an initial 2% rise in oil prices, oil markets ultimately did not react significantly to the Iranian threat, with oil analyst Thorbjoern Bak Jensen of Global Risk Management concluding that "they cannot stop the flow for a longer period due to the amount of U.S. hardware in the area". He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. L’Iran, qui se considère comme le gardien du Golfe, dénonce régulièrement la présence de forces étrangères dans la région, notamment la Cinquième flotte des Etats-Unis, stationnée à Bahreïn. bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. Ould Abdelaziz a expliqué que la Mauritanie avait rompu, il y quelques mois, ses relations diplomatiques avec l’Emirat, avant de les rétablir, à cause des nombreux intérêts économiques en jeu. However, since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, a significant part of Iran’s military spending has been allocated to the asymmetric warfare approach of its naval capabilities, the anti-access/ anti-denial (A2/AD) systems. Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman. [67] This is why the U.S relies on a substantial navy and air-force presence, which secures the traffic through the Strait, and are prepared to counter Iranian attempts to blockade it. ( Comme pour les armes chimiques fabriqués par les Irakiens). The collision, which slightly injured 15 sailors aboard Hartford, ruptured a fuel tank aboard New Orleans, spilling 25,000 US gallons (95 m3) of marine diesel fuel. Entre l'Iran et les États-Unis, la guerre des nerfs se poursuit 01:38. Il a menacé à plusieurs reprises de bloquer le détroit d’Ormuz en cas d’action militaire américaine dans la zone. Daring, which is the lead ship of her class is one of the "most advanced warships" in the world, and will undertake its first mission in the Persian Gulf. According to the officials, the anti-ship Fateh-110 Mod 3 flew over 100 miles on a flight path over the Strait of Hormuz to a test range in the Iranian desert. [27] The British Government however have said that this move has been long-planned, as Daring will replace another Armilla patrol frigate. Quelque 76 % des exportations de brut passant par ce détroit stratégique étaient destinées l’an dernier aux pays d’Asie (en premier lieu la Chine, l’Inde, le Japon et la Corée du Sud), selon l’EIA. Détroit d'Ormuz : il se situe dans le golfe Arabo-Persique, au Moyen-Orient. For our part, we are comfortable that we have in the region sufficient capabilities to honor our commitments to our friends and partners, as well as the international community." [30] The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response. L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. Since the first week of April 2020, the operation combines the Dutch frigate Ruyter, the French frigate Forbin, and one french airplane ATLANTIC2 (ATL2). [64] The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran have a number of these capabilities available, and in short reach of the Strait. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". [35] "If any disruption happens regarding the sale of Iranian oil, the Strait of Hormuz will definitely be closed," Mohammad Kossari, deputy head of parliament's foreign affairs and national security committee, told the semi-official Fars News Agency. [70][71] The UAE is building the world's largest crude oil storage facility in Fujairah with a capacity of holding 14 million barrels to enhance Fujairah's growth as a global oil and trading hub. [43], In July 2019, a Stena Bulk Tanker, Stena Impero, sailing under a British flag, was boarded and captured by Iranian forces. [2][3], A third of the world's liquefied natural gas and almost 25% of total global oil consumption passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.[3][4]. La fermeture du détroit d'Ormuz, ne serait-ce que pour une période de deux semaines, entraînerait des conséquences catastrophiques sur l'économie mondiale. Iran possess and produces a variety of naval mines, e.g. Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities.[63]. Ould Abdelaziz a comparé le Qatar et ce qu’il a fait aux pays arabes à l’Allemagne Nazie et à ce qu’elle a occasionnée aux pays européens. 0. Atta Kenare, AFP . Although not all countries have ratified the convention,[8] most countries, including the U.S.,[9] accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 2019, p. 7-24. Foreign Affairs, 2012, p. 166-173. Iran’s use of its territorial advantages in the Strait of Hormuz is therefore more effective as a threat, than if a complete or partial closure of the Strait is actually executed. Ratner, Michael. "Can Iran close the Strait of Hormuz?".