Le Bon, Gustave. He believed that “the action of a group consists mainly in fortifying hesitant beliefs. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography. One of these eternal laws that Le Bon constantly invoked is the futility of rationality in the affairs of society: an idea does not prevail because it is true, but by virtue of psychological mechanisms that have nothing to do with reason, such as repetition and “mental contagion.” These mechanisms permit an idea to penetrate into the unconscious, and it is only when an idea does become part of the unconscious that it becomes effective for action. . 1 (1954; rev. Biography of Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931) French social psychologist born in Nogent-le Rotrou on May 7, 1841 and died in Marne - la Coquette on December 15, 1931. Adam, Adolphe (Charles), noted French composer, son of Jean (Louis) Adam; b. Paris, July 24, 1803; d.…, Prévert, Jacques The son of a civil servant, this country doctor developed an early interest in anthropology, then sociology and psychology. He also indicated that crowds are capable of engaging in positive social actions as well. Although sometimes used interchangeably the term race and people, not conceived them as equivalent. □. Encyclopedia.com. Le Bon knew how to resort to the technique of the doctors in Molière. ." London: Allen & Unwin. Encyclopedia of World Biography. (December 19, 2020). See also: Bonaparte, Marie León; Christians and Jews: A Psychoanalytical Study ; Fascination; Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego ; Otherness; Suggestion. Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) Government officials, writers and scientists attended his "lunches": Théodule Ribot, Bergson, Valéry, Henri and Raymond Poincaré, Aristide Briand, and Marie Bonaparte, who introduced him to the work of Sigmund Freud and who remained Le Bon's friend until his death. "Gustave Le Bon Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon ble født 7. mai 1841 i Nogent-le-Rotrou i Centre-Val de Loire. . Explore books by Gustave Le Bon with our selection at Waterstones.com. He published the majority of his own writings as part of the collection, as well as Henri Poincaré's La Science et l'Hypothèse and Marie Bonaparte's Guerres militaires et Guerres sociales. (December 19, 2020). The French Revolution and the psychology of revolution. Born: Jean-Alexis Moncorgé in Paris, 17 May 1904; some sources give surname as Monçorge and Morcorge; father a cafe…, Gustafson, Hon. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. ." Learn about this topic in these articles: discussed in biography. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gustave-le-bon, "Gustave Le Bon Gustave Le Bon was an eminent psychologist and sociologist. Paris: Firmin-Didot. . Le Bon was convinced that contingent events as well as social behavior are guided by eternal laws (1912, p. 322). Le Bon's beliefs with respect to political behavior consistently revealed a basic mistrust of the masses. He established a hierarchy of the sexes using the same kind of criteria. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Le Bon, Delaunay and other anthropologists attributed to women intellectual, physical and moral inferiority on the basis of certain characters anthropological, like physical strength and different cranial capacity, weight and volume of the brain, which threw less than human values. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. Retrouvez toutes les phrases célèbres de Gustave Le Bon parmi une sélection de + de 100 000 citations célèbres provenant d'ouvrages, d'interviews ou de discours. In Psychology of Crowds, he explores theories of national traits and behaviour as opposed to the behaviour of individuals. Le Bon's idea of the unconscious as an archaic heritage of the human soul was closer to Jung than to Freud. Racial myths. ." 1968). His watchword was: let the conscious become the unconscious. Biography: French polymath. Studies ranging from components of tobacco smoke, through physical anthropology, to atomic energy and structure describe the broad range of scholarly interests Le Bon maintained until his death. With a new introduction by Robert A. Nye. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Paris: Flammarion. ." Le Bon also believed in the contagion of ideas in a crowd such that individual members, in a heightened state of suggestibility and with feelings of omnipotence, are subjugated to the will and emotion of the crowd mind. Il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine en 1866. At the time of Le Bon's birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. 1841-1931. ORTIZ, F. The deception of the races. It is, of course, chiefly by virtue of the works of this third phase that Le Bon belongs to the history of social science. In particular, the “law of the mental unity of crowds” was widely accepted and taught, and perhaps still is. He stated that crowds maintained a collective mind and that the group mind was not simply a summary of the individual persons. Freud read Le Bon and was directly inspired by him in writing Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego(1921c). Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Le Bon's work is discussed in its historical context in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. “The unconscious minds of the charmer and the charmed, the leader and the led, penetrate each other by a mysterious mechanism” (1910, p. 139). Similarly, he claimed to support his ideas on the psychological hierarchy of races and sexes with material from his study of the variations in the volume of the brain. Their spirit is that of the crowd which, like every spirit, is part of the unconscious; but this is a very low-level part of the unconscious, archaic or primitive from a historical point of view and medullar from a physiological one. Encyclopedia.com. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Nationality: French. art directory . Carnot chose a statuette which Le Bon quickly indicated was not appropriate because it carried a curse. Gustave Le Bon was a French social scientist and philosopher. ed. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. He saw this mental unity accompanied by an awareness of unanimity that has important consequences: dogmatism and intolerance, a feeling of irresistible power, and a sense of irresponsibility. Zitierweise Le Bon, Gustave, Indexeintrag: Deutsche Biographie, https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/pnd116850094.html [10.09.2020]. But these works in social psychology have links not only with the books of the period of his travels but also with those of what might be called his scientific phase. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. . No one in the course of a lifetime could possibly master all the disciplines observed in Le Bon's scholarly work. International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. At the time of Le Bons birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. Although Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) is most generally known for his book The Crowd, his career in fact had three overlapping phases, the successive focuses of his interest being anthropology and archeology, experimental and theoretical natural science, and only finally social psychology. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. How, then, does it happen that in a crowd situation even the most rational of men are transformed into brutes? One of these eternal laws that Le Bon constantly invoked is the futility of rationality in the affairs of society: an idea does not prevail because it is true, but by virtue of psychological mechanisms that have nothing to do with reason, such as repetition and “mental contagion.” These mechanisms permit an idea to penetrate into the unconscious, and it is only when an idea does become part of the unconscious that it becomes effective for action. Le Bon told Carnot that the owner of the statuette would be killed upon reaching the highest office in France. (Original work published 1895). Retrouvez les citations et proverbes les plus célèbres de Gustave Le Bon. Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £25. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. 380 citations de Gustave Le Bon - Ses plus belles pensées Citations de Gustave Le Bon Sélection de 380 citations et phrases de Gustave Le Bon - Découvrez un proverbe, une phrase, une parole, une pensée, une formule, un dicton ou une citation de Gustave Le Bon issus de romans, d'extraits courts de livres, essais, discours ou entretiens de l'auteur. It is these deeply-rooted beliefs that govern institutions (not the inverse, as Tocqueville had imagined). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Le Bon was perennially establishing hierarchies. The second characteristic of crowd behavior is its emotionality: the actions of the crowd are sudden, simple, extreme, intense, and very changeable, so betraying the feminine nature of crowds. and biological (paper legacy, Anatomy, natural selection and the struggle for existence) with that tried to hold that many towns were inferior to the Aryans and, in short, to several European Nations. The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon … They may even have special merit, for it was precisely such arbitrary assertions of Le Bon that contained his happiest insights. French social psychologist born in Nogent-le Rotrou on May 7, 1841 and died in Marne - la Coquette on December 15, 1931. Encyclopedia.com. He has been reproached for the summary, polemical, even reactionary nature of his analysis. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon est né à Nogent-le-Rotrou, dans le Centre-Val de Loire, le 7 mai 1841. - ℹ - Biographie : Médecin et sociologue français (1841-1931). Instead, a new distillation of traits emerged, primarily unconscious in nature, which reflected racially inherited characteristics. . "Le Bon, Gustave Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931. These are sentences that would not surprise us if they appeared in The People’s Choice or in The American Soldier. History, for Le Bon, is a consequence of racial temperament; to understand the history of a people, one must look to the soul of the people. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/le-bon-gustave, "Le Bon, Gustave Encyclopedia.com. A good review of Le Bon's career is in the introduction by Robert K. Merton to Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1960). A prophet and harsh critic of mass society, he ushered in the "age of the crowd," "the most recent sovereign of the modern age.". 1892 L’équitation actuelle et ses principes: Recherches expérimental s. Paris: Firmin-Didot. Thus, when Le Bon dealt with pedagogy and politics, he carefully transposed to children and peoples what he had earlier learned about horses. Persevering character and will peoples played an important role in the life of peoples that intelligence; on the other hand, those who had little power, character and perseverance were left dominate mass by a small group of men. Gustave Le Bon, Bases scientifiques d'une philosophie de l'histoire. Gustave Le Bon, the Man and His Works: A Presentation With Introduction, First Translations into English, and Edited Extracts [Le Bon, Gustave, Widener, Alice] on Amazon.com. However, the date of retrieval is often important. La Habana, Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1975. Erich-Fischer-Straße 3 78333 Stockach Germany Tel. Merton, Robert K. (1960) 1963 The Ambivalences of Le Bon’s The Crowd. Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. Il parcourut l’Europe, l'Asie et l'Afrique du Nord entre les années 1860 et 18805. 1 (1954; rev. Biography Youth Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. I saw the first term of the kind applied to the animal, estimated that the different races of men were separated by distinctive characters as marked as that separating species of animals next, characters possessing the characteristic reproduce by inheritance with regularity and consistency. Art Directory GmbH. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Gustave Le Bon, (born May 7, 1841, Nogent-le-Rotrou, France—died Dec. 13, 1931, Marnes-la-Coquette), French social psychologist best known for his study of the psychological characteristics of crowds.. After receiving a doctorate of medicine, Le Bon traveled in Europe, North Africa, and Asia and wrote several books on anthropology and archaeology. Gustave Le Bon was born on May 7, 1841, in Nogent-le-Retrou. Gustave Le Bon (født 7. mai 1841 i Nogent-le-Rotrou i departementet Eure-et-Loir i Frankrike, død 13. desember 1931 i Paris) var en fransk sosialpsykolog, sosiolog og amatørfysiker. La psychologie politique et la défense sociale. Le Bon's ideas about social evolution and political revolution were related again to racial stock. → First published as La révolution francaise et la psychologic des révolutions. Barcelona, Grupo Editorial Grijalbo. The series had considerable success. The vital implication of this theory for politics is that laws are illusory and ineffective if they lack a basis in the national psychology. . Né en 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou, où son père était conservateur des hypothèques, il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine5 en 1866. The third descriptive theme is that the intellectual processes of crowds are rudimentary and mechanical: crowds are very credulous, their ideas are schematic, and their logic is infrarational and ignores the principle of noncontradiction. Gustave Le Bon - Sociologue français. (December 19, 2020). With a new introduction by Robert A. Nye. Retrouvez toutes les phrases célèbres de Gustave Le Bon parmi une sélection de + de 100 000 citations célèbres provenant d'ouvrages, d'interviews ou de discours. This rudimentary theory of learning was first formulated when he was stud… It was by the most reckless, the most false, and the most harmful of his theories that Le Bon exerted his greatest influence, in France and even more so abroad. ." During this period, furthermore, Le Bon began the work in social psychology that was to become the predominant concern of the final phase of his career. Qui est Gustave Le Bon ? BIOGRAPHIE . Before sketching the main outlines of the doctrine underlying all of Le Bon’s psychological work, one trait of this work—perhaps at the time the most original—should be stressed. Military Serv…, Pautre, Antoine Le (1621–79). In spite of, or perhaps because of, the book's phenomenal success—it has been translated into several languages and was reprinted many times—Le Bon has been disparaged and misunderstood by the scientific community. Leonard Joe (Saskatchewan), Gustavus Adolphus College: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/le-bon-gustave, https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gustave-le-bon. Gustave Le Bon nació el 7 de mayo de 1841, en Nogent-le-Rotrou, Francia. The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. New York: Viking. 19 Dec. 2020 . Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Further Reading on Gustave Le Bon. Freud wanted to clarify the irrationality of the group in order to reduce it, while Le Bon appeared to systematically cultivate it. Freud, Sigmund. In the human races he/she distinguished characters provided by inheritance and characters purchased under the influence of the environment, education and other causes. Fittingly, 2016 marks the 175th anniversary of the birth of Gustave Le Bon, the French polymath who popularized this durable and dire idea. 1910 Psychologie politique et la defense sociale. https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-bon-gustave-1841-1931, Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) New York: Macmillan. The consequence of these innate traits was a regression in the direction of more primitive, instinctual determinants of behavior, in contrast to more rational intellectual determinants. revealed the distinctions between the superior and inferior races, but were the moral characters and intellectuals (accumulated by inheritance in a nation) who explained the dominance of a race or people over others. The psychological characteristics of crowds, as analyzed at length in the celebrated The Crowd, may be grouped around three themes. Gustave Le Bon was a French social scientist and philosopher. → First published as Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples. (1895) 1947 The Crowd. Born: 1841 - Died: 1931 Period: 20th century 19th century Place of birth: France Gustave Le Bon - Quotes. The hereditary characters were so stable that an ancient race transported to a medium that requires major transformations perished before that transform, as acclimatization was a vain illusion, as it happened with the English in India, that despite the rules of hygiene were not able to acclimatize. He designed the Chapelle de Port-Royal, Paris (16…, Gabin, Jean La meilleure citation de Gustave Le Bon préférée des internautes. Paris: Mercure de France. He pa…, Adam, Adolphe (Charles) . International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. Le Bon practiced medicine in Paris after finishing his medical studies in 1866. Thus he asserted the existence of a hierarchy of races, based on psychological criteria (such as degree of reasoning ability, power of attention, mastery over instinctual drives; see the Psychology of Peoples 1894) and confirmed on anatomical grounds by the alleged greater differentiation of the superior races and the greater consequent incidence of individuals who rise above the mean. (1894) 1898 The Psychology of Peoples. His deterministic conception of upper and lower races made him argue that it was advantageous for the first if they are crossed with other similar, forming a homogeneous, everything as it happened with the "English race", rather than with others very opposed or very different by their civilization, its past and its character, as it happened with the union of black and whiteIndian and European, etc. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html, Gustave Le Bon, a French physician and philosopher, was born in 1841 in Nogent-le-Rotrou and died on December 24, 1931, in Paris. TORT, P. Dictionaire du darwinisme et de l' évolution. Esprit universel, polygraphe, il est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages dans lesquels il aborde le désordre comportemental et la psychologie des foules. Gustave Le Bon, deren Bücher sind nach wie vor von großem Interesse für Psychologen, Soziologen, Historiker und andere., Ist der Gründer der Sozialpsychologie betrachtet. However, when he was in his late thirties Le Bon’s interests began to shift radically: he invented recording instruments (exhibited in 1878), studied racial variations in cranial capacity, analyzed the composition of tobacco smoke, published a photo-graphic method for making plans and maps, as well as a treatise that put the training of horses on an experimental basis, and, finally, devoted more than ten years to research on black light, intra-atomic energy, and the equivalence of matter and energy.