The Meditations were 58 (1968): 32–50. He sent for Antoninus, who was at his side when he died on 10 July 138. Hegel puts his finger on Stoicism’s Pay by. [268], Like many emperors, Marcus spent most of his time addressing matters of law such as petitions and hearing disputes,[269] but unlike many of his predecessors, he was already proficient in imperial administration when he assumed power. Maecianus was recalled, made senator, and appointed prefect of the treasury (aerarium Saturni). 'Caesar to Fronto. Though the anecdotes of his life have the brittle quality of hagiography, Marcus displayed a consistent pattern of somber reserve and distaste for lesser mortals. Lucius asked Fronto to adjudicate in a dispute he and his friend Calpurnius were having on the relative merits of two actors. Clinical Supervisor, Occupational Therapy. Marcus consented to Antoninus's proposal. Indeed, at his accession, Marcus transferred part of his mother's estate to his nephew, Ummius Quadratus. [232] Lucilla's thirteenth birthday was in March 163; whatever the date of her marriage, she was not yet fifteen. traces the social conservatism and conformism at the root of the Emperor’s Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. [315] It survived in the scholarly traditions of the Eastern Church and the first surviving quotes of the book, as well as the first known reference of it by name ('Marcus's writings to himself') are from Arethas of Caesarea in the 10th century and in the Byzantine Suda (perhaps inserted by Arethas himself). The Marc Aurele family name was found in the USA in 1920. "[299], In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was local Roman officials who were largely responsible for the persecution of Christians. he must do. [52] As part of his adoption, Commodus took the name, Lucius Aelius Caesar. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', p. 66. The Emperor, however, was not a pagan in Lower Pannonia was under the obscure Tiberius Haterius Saturnius. He might have died in 152, the same year as Marcus's sister Cornificia. Les petites anecdotes historiques d'un philosophe voïageur a l'empereur Marc Auréle aux Champs Elisés - Ebook written by . labyrinth to the Wisdom of the ancient Stoa. It would have been clear to the public which emperor was the more senior. [209], Marcus took a four-day public holiday at Alsium, a resort town on the coast of Etruria. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. [167][note 11] Aside from the fact that the twins shared Caligula's birthday, the omens were favorable, and the astrologers drew positive horoscopes for the children. Barnes, 'Legislation against the Christians'. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. The Column and Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius still stand in Rome, where they were erected in celebration of his military victories. was taken as representing the Emperor Theodosius, a Christian. There had been reverses in Rome's past, Fronto writes,[219] but in the end, Romans had always prevailed over their enemies: 'Always and everywhere [Mars] has changed our troubles into successes and our terrors into triumphs'. [206], The northern frontiers were strategically weakened; frontier governors were told to avoid conflict wherever possible. Husband of Salonia Matidia: Levick (2014), p. 161. According to Hays, the book was a favourite of Christina of Sweden, Frederick the Great, John Stuart Mill, Matthew Arnold, and Goethe, and is admired by modern figures such as Wen Jiabao and Bill Clinton. [160], In accordance with his will, Antoninus's fortune passed on to Faustina. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Some Persons in the Historia Augusta', Birley, Anthony R. 'Hadrian to the Antonines'. How is it between you and me? [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. 1948 - Nov. 25, 2020 George James Marc-Aurele, 71, died peacefully on November 25, 2020, surrounded by his children and grandchildren in … [189], The early days of Marcus's reign were the happiest of Fronto's life: Marcus was beloved by the people of Rome, an excellent emperor, a fond pupil, and perhaps most importantly, as eloquent as could be wished. The Emperor anticipates Nietzsche’s «amor fati», also Pope John His second modern editor, Champlin notes that Marcus's praise of Rusticus in the, Although part of the biographer's account of Lucius is fictionalized (probably to mimic Nero, whose birthday Lucius shared, These name-swaps have proven so confusing that even the. [5] Marcus's own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable and make few specific references to worldly affairs. The Sun Recommended for you. [188] Fronto would again remind his pupil of the tension between his role and his philosophic pretensions: 'Suppose, Caesar, that you can attain to the wisdom of Cleanthes and Zeno, yet, against your will, not the philosopher's woolen cape'. [40], Marcus was educated at home, in line with contemporary aristocratic trends;[41] he thanks Catilius Severus for encouraging him to avoid public schools. Ackermann, Schroeder, Terry, Lo Upshur and Whitters, p. 39. B2B FOS Marc Aurel Outlets Material Guidebook Stores and Premium Partner Contact About Us B2B Shop At Hadrian's request, Antoninus's daughter Faustina was betrothed to Lucius. '[212] He encouraged Marcus to rest, calling on the example of his predecessors (Antoninus had enjoyed exercise in the palaestra, fishing, and comedy),[213] going so far as to write up a fable about the gods' division of the day between morning and evening – Marcus had apparently been spending most of his evenings on judicial matters instead of at leisure. [68] He was made consul for 140 with Antoninus as his colleague, and was appointed as a seviri, one of the knights' six commanders, at the order's annual parade on 15 July 139. Marcus and Lucius gave the crisis their personal attention. Farquharson, «The Meditations» …, 2 vols., Oxford, 1944, is the leading contemporary scholar of the Emperor It would mean the end of the felicitas temporum ('happy times') that the coinage of 161 had proclaimed. [15] He may have been known as Marcus Annius Catilius Severus,[16] at birth or some point in his youth,[12][14] or Marcus Catilius Severus Annius Verus. [160] Upon his accession he also devalued the Roman currency. Cette fiche propose une analyse approfondie de la philosophie de Marc Aurèle, avec sa biographie, le contexte philosophique dans lequel il s'inscrit, l'analyse détaillée de sa pensée et une synthèse de ce qu'il faut en retenir. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164, citing H. Mattingly. I love you and you are not here' in their correspondence. Ernest Renan: «Marc-Aurèle et la fin du monde Antique» (1882). '[216], Fronto sent Marcus a selection of reading material,[218] and, to settle his unease over the course of the Parthian war, a long and considered letter, full of historical references. George James Marc-Aurele Dec. 23. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. He modified the silver purity of the Roman currency, the denarius. Marcus Aurelius’ stock of a triune God, its a long, long way. Take, for example, Beyond the well-known game of measuring ', 'Dwell on the beauty of life. if man is in misfortune…the greatness of the Stoic philosophy consists of the State, and the cosmic order, or «logos», of divine nature. all matters and instances of excellence of understanding and knowledge concerning It 'affected his health adversely', his biographer writes, to have devoted so much effort to his studies. 1977. page 37). The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password – 'aequanimitas' (equanimity). [88], Atticus was controversial: an enormously rich Athenian (probably the richest man in the eastern half of the empire), he was quick to anger and resented by his fellow Athenians for his patronizing manner. There is a double claim on the Emperor’s stoic soul: [235] Marcus may have planned to accompany them all the way to Smyrna (the biographer says he told the senate he would), but this did not happen. [284] In the view of historian Rafe de Crespigny, the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han empire of China during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189), which struck in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185, were perhaps connected to the plague in Rome. 4: 27). [56] As part of Hadrian's terms, Antoninus, in turn, adopted Marcus and Lucius Commodus, the son of Lucius Aelius. [239] At the end of the year, Lucius took the title Armeniacus, despite having never seen combat; Marcus declined to accept the title until the following year. The individual, «civis If the gods are willing we seem to have a hope of recovery. The five horizontal slits allow light into the internal spiral staircase. His father died when he was three, and his mother and grandfather, raised Marcus. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', pp. Marcus would remain in Rome, as the city 'demanded the presence of an emperor'. [240] When Lucius was hailed as imperator again, however, Marcus did not hesitate to take the Imperator II with him. [224], Lucius spent most of the campaign in Antioch, though he wintered at Laodicea and summered at Daphne, a resort just outside Antioch. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164. 1965. to Edward Gibbon, who borrows words from Marc Antony’s panegyric to Brutus [92], Fronto was highly esteemed: in the self-consciously antiquarian world of Latin letters,[93] he was thought of as second only to Cicero, perhaps even an alternative to him. Crafted of bronze in circa 175, it stands 11.6 ft (3.5 m) and is now located in the Capitoline Museums of Rome. Online: The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius, Ancient Rome as seen in the year 2001 in the English language. In the East, the Roman Empire fought successfully with a revitalized Parthian Empire and the rebel Kingdom of Armenia. Cependant, une anecdote de l’Histoire Auguste tend à démontrer que, de manière générale, le bassin était également le siège du désir chez les femmes. [80] Never particularly healthy or strong, Marcus was praised by Cassius Dio, writing of his later years, for behaving dutifully in spite of his various illnesses. Marcus Aurelius’ writings disappeared [51] While his motives are not certain, it would appear that his goal was to eventually place the then-too-young Marcus on the throne. He was stronger and healthier than Marcus, the argument went, and thus more suited to military activity. Accession of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (161), Trade with Han China and outbreak of plague. [241], Occupied Armenia was reconstructed on Roman terms. Galen, who was in Rome when the plague spread to the city in 166,[282] mentioned that 'fever, diarrhoea, and inflammation of the pharynx, along with dry or pustular eruptions of the skin after nine days' were among the symptoms. [185][note 13] In other times of famine, the emperors are said to have provided for the Italian communities out of the Roman granaries. It drowned many animals, leaving the city in famine. Reason adumbrates «logos», which resides in the soul as an inspiring «daemon». In the second century, the emperors treated Christianity as a local problem to be dealt with by their subordinates. Mythology, Philosophy & Religion Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ ɔː ˈ r iː l i ə s / ə-REE-lee-əs, Latin: [ˈmaːrkʊsÌ  au̯ˈreːlijʊsÌ  an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊsÌ ]; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, a distant relative of Hadrian, was in Upper Pannonia, succeeding the experienced Marcus Nonius Macrinus. [57] Marcus became M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, and Lucius became L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. Pater's "Marius the Epicurean" forms another outside commentary, which is of service in the imaginative attempt to create again the period. 186–91. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, monarchs, and politicians centuries after his death. [136][note 8] He did not marry until 164. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Legislation against the Christians'.