On 28 January, Papen described Hitler to Paul von Hindenburg as only a minority part of an alternative, Papen-arranged government. Republica de la Weimar (în germană Weimarer Republik) este numele dat de istorici Germaniei după Primul Război Mondial și a fost prima democrație parlamentară din istoria Germaniei.Republica de la Weimar a existat între 1919-1933, de la proclamarea republicii, în urma Primului Război Mondial, și până la numirea lui Adolf Hitler în funcția de cancelar. “Republique is some of the most entertaining and clever dystopian fiction ever realized in game form.” 8.5/10 – Polygon “Special, new, and necessary.” 8.5/10 – IGN “If you’ve never played Republique before, this is the best way to experience it.” 8/10 – Hardcore Gamer He promised to respect their rights and declared that his government's "ambition is a peaceful accord between Church and State" and that he hoped "to improve [their] friendly relations with the Holy See". From 1923 to 1929, there was a short period of economic recovery, but the Great Depression of the 1930s led to a worldwide recession. [27][need quotation to verify][28]. The Weimar Republic was not the product of a victorious democratic revolution, but of counter-revolutionary violence. Because of the Nazis' narrow majority in the Reichstag, Centre's support was necessary to receive the required two-thirds majority vote. Only the SPD had voted against the Act. [46] Health insurance coverage was extended to other categories of the population during the existence of the Weimar Republic, including seamen, people employed in the educational and social welfare sectors, and all primary dependents. [32], In the early post-war years, inflation was growing at an alarming rate, but the government simply printed more currency to pay debts. These strikes lasted eight months, further damaging both the economy and society. Otto Wels, the leader of the Social Democrats, whose seats were similarly depleted from 120 to below 100, was the only speaker to defend democracy and in a futile but brave effort to deny Hitler the ⅔ majority, he made a speech critical of the abandonment of democracy to dictatorship. He explained that a deflation causes a decline of profits, asset prices and a still greater decline in the net worth of businesses. Des milliers de professeurs, d’industriels, d’hommes politiques détestaient les nazis mais n’aimaient pas la République. En janvier 1919, une Assemblée nationale a été choisie pour rédiger une constitution. Inter no. His long-term view was that deflation would, in any case, be the best way to help the economy. [citation needed]. Social tensions, political struggles, social upheavals, as well as artistic revolutions and innovations characterize the Weimar Republic. A decree on 3 February 1919 removed the right of employers to acquire exemption for domestic servants and agricultural workers. La république de Weimar center left no-repeat;padding-left:15px;font-size:smaller}Écouter) est le nom donné par les historiens au régime politique en place en Allemagne de 1918 à 1933. The MSPD decided to make use of their support at the grassroots and put themselves at the front of the movement, demanding that Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicate. Il a publié chez Flammarion plusieurs manuels d'Histoire, régulièrement réédités : Chronologie universelle, Les grandes dates de l'Histoire de France... Passionné d'Histoire depuis la petite enfance, notre directeur de la rédaction a suivi une maîtrise d'Histoire à l'université de Toulouse en parallèle avec des études d'ingénieur à l'École centrale de Lyon (1973-1976). [40] A series of progressive tax reforms were introduced under the auspices of Matthias Erzberger, including increases in taxes on capital[41] and an increase in the highest income tax rate from 4% to 60%. The strike meant that no "official" pronouncements could be published, and with the civil service out on strike, the Kapp government collapsed after only four days on 17 March. Ce mode de scrutin va se révéler une source de faiblesse pour le nouveau régime car il favorise l'éclatement des partis et les gouvernements de coalition au détriment de l'efficacité. During the worst phase of hyperinflation in 1923, the clubs and bars were full of speculators who spent their daily profits so they would not lose the value the following day. Et accédez à des documents multimédia, exclusifs et surprenants ! In 1929, three years after receiving the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize, Stresemann died of a heart attack at age 51. Brüning expected that the policy of deflation would temporarily worsen the economic situation before it began to improve, quickly increasing the German economy's competitiveness and then restoring its creditworthiness. However, he also drew right-wing extremist hatred as a Jew (see also Weimar antisemitism). Le 6 février 1919, trois mois après l'armistice qui a mis fin à la Grande Guerre (1914-1918), une Assemblée constituante allemande se réunit dans le théâtre de Weimar, la ville de Goethe et Schiller, illustres représentants de l'âme allemande ! Le 21 août 1919. [citation needed], Princeton historian Harold James argues that there was a clear link between economic decline and people turning to extremist politics.[69]. Because the production costs in Germany were falling almost hourly, the prices for German products were unbeatable. On 15 November 1923, a new currency, the Rentenmark, was introduced at the rate of one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) Papiermark for one Rentenmark, an action known as redenomination. At the last internal Centre meeting prior to the debate on the Enabling Act, Kaas expressed no preference or suggestion on the vote, but as a way of mollifying opposition by Centre members to the granting of further powers to Hitler, Kaas somehow arranged for a letter of constitutional guarantee from Hitler himself prior to his voting with the centre en bloc in favour of the Enabling Act. Prominent features of this period were a growing economy and a consequent decrease in civil unrest. Paul von Hindenburg became Reichspräsident in 1925. Privates were mainly recruited from the countryside, as it was believed that young men from cities were prone to socialist behaviour, which would fray the loyalty of the privates to their conservative officers. André Larané a fondé Herodote.net en 2004 après une première carrière dans le journalisme scientifique. The German peace delegation in France signed the Treaty of Versailles, accepting mass reductions of the German military, the prospect of substantial war reparations payments to the victorious allies, and the controversial "War Guilt Clause". At the end of 1933, Mecklenburg-Strelitz was merged with Mecklenburg-Schwerin to form a united Mecklenburg. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded it formal (de jure) recognition, and the two mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. En savoir plus, Herodote.net se développe avec le seul soutien de ses abonnés...En savoir plus, Dommage de caricaturer le mouvement spartakiste, Rosa Luxemburg et Karl Liebknetch et les conseils ouvriers. [clarification needed] As the Young Plan did not allow a devaluation of the Reichsmark, Brüning triggered a deflationary internal devaluation by forcing the economy to reduce prices, rents, salaries and wages by 20%. In addition, a national unemployment insurance programme was introduced in 1927. Leur vision très critique du bolchevisme était prémonitoire et leur assassinat a brisé une ... Lire la suite. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919,[9] but this name only became mainstream after 1933. During an adjournment, the other parties (notably the centre) met to discuss their intentions. La République de Weimar est le nom donné par les historiens à la république fédérale située en Allemagne existant de 1918 à 1933.. Fondation [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. Germany was the first state to establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Union. During the Kapp Putsch for example, the army refused to fire upon the rebels. Stinnes' empire collapsed when the government-sponsored inflation was stopped in November 1923. "[31] Adolf Hitler repeatedly blamed the republic and its democracy for accepting the oppressive terms of this treaty. Schleicher, a retired army officer, had developed in an atmosphere of semi-obscurity and intrigue that encompassed the Republican military policy. Allemagne -- Histoire -- 1918-1933 (République de Weimar) Condition économique. By the end of March, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had used the perceived state of emergency to grant Hitler as Chancellor broad power to act outside parliamentary control, which he used to thwart constitutional governance and civil liberties. The Communists' 81 seats had been empty since the Reichstag Fire Decree and other lesser known procedural measures, thus excluding their anticipated "No" votes from the balloting. According to the Nuremberg Trials, this cabinet meeting's first order of business was how at last to achieve the complete counter-revolution by means of the constitutionally allowed Enabling Act, requiring a 66% parliamentary majority. With the ascendance of the SS, the Reichswehr took a softer line about the Nazis, as the SS presented itself as elitist, respectable, orderly, and busy reforming and dominating the police rather than the army. The state was officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), and was also referred to as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik). The new Reichswehr armed forces, limited by the Treaty of Versailles to 100,000 army soldiers and 15,000 sailors, remained fully under the control of the German officer class, despite their nominal re-organisation. Whether there were alternatives to this policy during the Great Depression is an open question. The first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar (Republic of Weimar) came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929. The uprising was brutally attacked by Freikorps, which consisted mainly of ex-soldiers dismissed from the army and who were well-paid to put down forces of the Far Left. For the German city, see, States of the Weimar Republic in the 1920s (with, The official coat of arms of Germany from 1928 to 1933, designed by Tobias Schwab, Brüning's policy of deflation (1930–1932). Later that day, the first cabinet meeting was attended by only two political parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the German National People's Party (DNVP), led by Alfred Hugenberg, with 196 and 52 seats respectively. He had also sought to break Germany's isolation after World War I through the 1922 Treaty of Rapallo with the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Hitler's seizure of power (Machtergreifung) brought the republic to an end. Les énormes réparations imposées à l'Allemagne par les Alliés empêchent la démocratie de se consolider. In addition, a supplementary directive of December 1918 specified that female (and child) workers were entitled to a fifteen-minute break if they worked between four and six hours, thirty minutes for workdays lasting six to eight hours, and one hour for longer days. Various right-wing sources opposed any democratic system, preferring an authoritarian, autocratic state like the 1871 Empire. Inspired by the general strikes, a workers' uprising began in the Ruhr region when 50,000 people formed a "Red Army" and took control of the province. The burdens of the First World War lightened little in the immediate years following, and with the onset of the Treaty of Versailles, coupled by mass inflation, Germany still remained in a crisis. Retreat and defeat were at hand, and the Army told the Kaiser to abdicate for it could no longer support him. Title: Une démocratie fragile : La République de Weimar Author: Facing History and Ourselves Created Date: 4/2/2020 4:21:32 PM [64], In the debate prior to the vote on the Enabling Act, Hitler orchestrated the full political menace of his paramilitary forces like the storm division in the streets to intimidate reluctant Reichstag deputies into approving the Enabling Act. Request full-text PDF. The right to bargain collectively was also established, while it was made obligatory "to elect workers’ committees on estates and establish conciliation committees". The 'Ebert–Groener pact' stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the army so long as the army swore to protect the state. The 1920s saw a remarkable cultural renaissance in Germany. The Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law on 11 August 1919. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak, tongue and claws and white highlighting. The decree invoked Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution and "indefinitely suspended" a number of constitutional protections of civil liberties, allowing the Nazi government to take swift action against political meetings, arresting and killing the Communists. Bloody street fights culminated in the beating and shooting deaths of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht after their arrests on 15 January. Hitler learned from Papen that the general had not received from Hindenburg the authority to abolish the Reichstag parliament, whereas any majority of seats did. It empowered the cabinet to legislate without the approval of the Reichstag or the President, and to enact laws that were contrary to the constitution. Dans le même temps se réunit à Weimar une Assemblée nationale, majoritairement constitu… Chaque semaine, un contrepoint historique de l'actualité, anniversaires, récits, devinettes : Gratuit et vous pouvez vous désabonner à tout moment. The Reichstag convened on 23 March 1933, and in the midday opening, Hitler made a historic speech, appearing outwardly calm and conciliatory. The hitherto Presidential Dictatorship hereby was to give itself a new legal form. Therefore, Hitler refused ministry under Papen, and demanded the chancellorship for himself, but was rejected by Hindenburg on 13 August 1932. La fin de la République de Weimar. The first challenge to the Weimar Republic came when a group of communists and anarchists took over the Bavarian government in Munich and declared the creation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. [53] In mid-1931, the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard and about 30 countries (the sterling bloc) devalued their currencies,[54] making their goods around 20% cheaper than those produced by Germany. The passage of the Enabling Act of 1933 is widely considered to mark the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Nazi era. When the New York Stock Exchange crashed in October 1929, American loans dried up and the sharp decline of the German economy brought the "Golden Twenties" to an abrupt end. [55] Anton Erkelenz, chairman of the German Democratic Party and a contemporary critic of Brüning, famously said that the policy of deflation is: A rightful attempt to release Germany from the grip of reparation payments, but in reality it meant nothing else than committing suicide because of fearing death. On 22 March, the negotiations concluded; Hitler promised to continue the existence of the German states, agreed not to use the new grant of power to change the constitution, and promised to retain Zentrum members in the civil service.